Mining of Mineral Deposits

ISSN 2415-3443 (Online)

ISSN 2415-3435 (Print)

Flag Counter

Coalbed methane: places of origin, perspectives of extraction, alternative methods of transportation with the use of gas hydrate and nanotechnologies

K. Hanushevych1, V. Srivastava1

1Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, United States

Min. miner. depos. 2017, 11(3):23-33

Full text (PDF)


      Purpose.To investigate the main basic physical and chemical properties of coalbed methane (CBM), conditions of its formation and places of occurrence. Special attention is paid to CBM utilization using alternative methods such as gas hydrate technologies and nanotechnologies.

      Methods. Analysis of geological conditions of CBM occurrence and its content in several countries and methods of increasing gas hydrate formation rate to intensify gas utilization.

      Findings. The reserves of CBM in different countries are classified according to the amount of gas in each country. A wide review is given to the methods of gas hydrates formation rate intensification and nanotechnologies application using different chemical compounds to utilize and transport CBM by ground transportation.

      Originality. Gas hydrates and dry water have been proposed as alternative methods of CBM utilization and transportation in a solid form.

      Practical implications. Colossal amounts of methane released into the atmosphere from underground coal mines can be captured and converted into a solid or powder form for transportation over large distances under moderate thermobaric conditions.

      Keywords: coalbed methane, greenhouse gases, gas hydrates, dry water, nanoparticles, gas transportation, use of surfactants, water spraying


Airey, E.M. (1968). Gas Emission from Broken Coal. An Experimental and Theoretical Investigation. International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences, 5(6), 475-494.

Al-Jubori, A., Johnston, S., Boyer, C., Lambert, S., Bustos, O., Pashin, J., & Wray, A. (2009). Coalbed Methane: Clean Energy for the World. Oilfield Review, 21(2), 4-13.

Altan, D., & Zhu, J. (2014). Formation and Stability of Dry Water for Storage and Transportation of Aqueous Solutions. Research Report. Oklahoma City: Casady School.

Anklam, M.R., & Firoozabadi, A. (2004). Driving Force and Composition for Multicomponent Gas Hydrate Nucleation from Supersaturated Aqueous Solutions. The Journal of Chemical Physics, 121(23), 11867-11875.

Artemenko, A.I. (1980). Organic Chemistry. Moscow: Higher School.

A Regional Handbook for Coalbed Methane Degasification in the Southern Shanxi Province China. (2011). Virginia: Virginia Center for Coal and Energy Research.

Australian Government. (2006). Coalbed Methane. Research Report. Symonston: Geoscience Australia.

Bland, E. (2008). Dry Water Makes Storage a Gas. ABC Science, pp. 2-4. Retrieved from

Brown, T.D., Taylor, C.E., & Bernardo, M.P. (2010). Rapid Gas Hydrate Formation Processes: Will They Work? Energies, 3(6), 1154-1175.

Brown Coal Statistics (German). (2014). Essen: Statistik der Kohlenwirtschaft.

Bue, C. (2012). Deliverability of Coalbed Methane. Trondheim: Norwegian University of Science and Technology.

Che, C.B., Yang, H.L., Li, F.B., Liu, C.L., Zhu, J., Li, Y.X., & Tang, W.L. (2008). Exploration and Development Prospects of Coal Bed Methane (CBM) Resources in China. China Mining Magazine, 17(5), 1-4.

Coalbed Methane: The Evil Twin of Shale Gas. (2012). Retrieved from

Coal Mine Methane in Ukraine: Opportunities for Production and Investment in the Donetsk Coal Basin. (2001).

Research Report. Washington, United States Environmental Protection Agency.

Coal Mine Methane in Russia. Capturing the Safety and Environmental Benefits. (2009). Paris: International Energy Agency.

Coal of Ukraine. (2013). Scientific Report. London: Baker Tilly International.

Creedy, D.P. (1991). An Introduction to Geological Aspects of Methane Occurrence and Control in British Deep Coal Mines. Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology and Hydrogeology, 24(2), 209-220.

Davidson, R.M., Sloss, L.L., & Clarke, L.B. (1995). Coalbed Methane Extraction. London: IEA Coal Research.

Developments in India-CMM/CBM. (2010). Coal Mine Methane “Project Development Status and Trends for the Methane to Markets” EXPO. Port Louis: Essar Energy, Essar Exploration & Production Ltd.

Dinkelbach, L., & Mader, R. (2004). Capture and Use of Methane from Operating and Abandoned mines in Germany. In International Methane & Nitrous Oxide Mitigation Conference. Bejing: GAS Energietechnologie GmbH.

Dudley D., Rice. (1993). Composition and Origins of Coalbed Gas. AAPG Bulletin, (77), 159-184.

Fakharian, H., Ganji, H., Naderi Far, A., & Kameli, M. (2012). Potato Starch as Methane Hydrate Promoter. Fuel, (94), 356-360.

Fandiño, O., & Ruffine, L. (2014). Methane Hydrate Nucleation and Growth from the Bulk Phase: Further Insights into Their Mechanisms. Fuel, (117), 442-449.

Fossil Energy Research Benefits. Coalbed Methane. (2012). Washington: Office of Fossil Energy.

Fuhrhop, J.-H., & Koning, J. (1996). Membranes and Molecular Assemblies; The Synkinetic Approach. Journal of the American Chemical Society, (117), 10790. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 118(43), 10678-10678.

Ganushevych, K., Sai, K., & Korotkova, A. (2014). Creation of Gas Hydrates from Mine Methane. New Developments in Mining Engineering 2015: Theoretical and Practical Solutions of Mineral Resources Mining, 505-509.

Global Methane Initiative. (2014). International Coal Mine Methane Projects Database.

Gudmundsson, J.-S., Parlaktuna, M., & Khokhar, A.A. (1994). Storage of Natural Gas as Frozen Hydrate. SPE Production & Facilities, 9(01), 69-73.

Guidebook on Coalbed Methane Drainage for Under-Ground Coal Mines. (1999). Research Report. Washington: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

Ham, Y.S., & Kantzas, A. (2008). Development of Coalbed Methane in Australia: Unique Approaches and Tools. In CIPC/SPE Gas Technology Symposium 2008 Joint Conference. Alberta: Society of Petroleum Engineers.

Hu, G., Ye, Y., Liu, C., Meng, Q., Zhang, J., & Diao, S. (2011). Direct Measurement of Formation and Dissociation Rate and Storage Capacity of Dry Water Methane Hydrates. Fuel Processing Technology, 92(8), 1617-1622.

India’s ONGC to Start Coal-Bed Methane Production Next Year. (2015). Retrieved from

Kalogerakis, N., Jamaluddin, A.K.M., Dholabhai, P.D., & Bishnoi, P.R. (1993). Effect of Surfactants on Hydrate Formation Kinetics. In Proceedings of SPE International Symposium on Oilfield Chemistry. New Orleans: Society of Petroleum Engineers.

Kashchiev, D., & Firoozabadi, A. (2002). Driving Force for Crystallization of Gas Hydrates. Journal of Crystal Growth, 241(1-2), 220-230.

Katoh, H., & Fukazawa, K. (2011). Development of the Silo for Natural Gas Hydrate (NGH) Pellet. In International Conference on Gas Hydrates. Edinburgh: ICGH.

Kim, A.G. (1973). The Composition of Coalbed Gas. Report of Investigations 7762. Pittsburgh: Pittsburgh Mining and Safety Research Center.

Krevelen, D.W. (1961). Coal: Typology, Chemistry, Physics, Constitution. New York: Elsevier Publishing Co.

Kumar, H., & Mathews, J.P. (2006). An Overview of Current Coalbed Methane Extraction Technologies. Houston: Research Partnership to Secure Energy for America.

Kumar, A., Bhattacharjee, G., Kulkarni, B.D., & Kumar, R. (2015). Role of Surfactants in Promoting Gas Hydrate Formation. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, 54(49), 12217-12232.

Li, J., Liang, D., Guo, K., Wang, R., & Fan, S. (2006). Formation and Dissociation of HFC134a Gas Hydrate in Nano-Copper Suspension. Energy Conversion and Management, 47(2), 201-210.

Lv, X., Shi, B., Wang, Y., & Gong, J. (2013). Study on Gas Hydrate Formation and Hydrate Slurry Flow in a Multiphase Transportation System. Energy & Fuels, 27(12), 7294-7302.

Mannel, D., & Puckett, D. (2008). Transportation and Storage of Natural Gas Hydrates.

Martin, G., Sinquin, A., & Darbouret, M. (2011). Hydrate Slurry Characterization for Laminar and Turbulent Flows in Pipelines. In International Conference on Gas Hydrates. Edinburgh: ICGH.

Mimachi, H., Takeya, S., Yoneyama, A., Hyodo, K., Takeda, T., Gotoh, Y., & Murayama, T. (2014). Natural Gas Storage and Transportation Within Gas Hydrate of Smaller Particle: Size Dependence of Self-Preservation Phenomenon of Natural Gas Hydrate. Chemical Engineering Science, (118), 208-213.x

Miyazaki, S. (2005). Coalbed Methane Growing Rapidly as Australia Gas Supply Diversifie. Oil & Gas Journal, 103(28), 32-36.

Mosle, B., Kukla, P., Stollhofe, H., & Preube, A. (2009). Coal Bed Methane Production in the Munsterland Basin, Germany – Past and the Future. Geophysical Research Abstracts, (11).

Mottahedin, M., Varaminian, F., & Mafakheri, K. (2011). Modeling of Methane and Ethane Hydrate Formation Kinetics Based on Non-Equilibrium Thermodynamics. Journal of Non-Equilibrium Thermodynamics, 36(1), 3-22.

Mu, F., Zhong, W., Zhao, X., Che, C., Chen, Y., Zhu, J., & Wang, B. (2015). Strategies for The Development of CBM Gas Industry in China. Natural Gas Industry B, 2(4), 383-389.

Ohmura, R., Kashiwazaki, S., Shiota, S., Tsuji, H., & Mori, Y.H. (2002). Structure-I and Structure-H Hydrate Formation Using Water Spraying. Energy & Fuels, 16(5), 1141-1147.

Ojha, K., Karmakar, B., Mandal, A., & Pathak, A.K. (2011). Coal Bed Methane in India: Difficulties and Prospects. International Journal of Chemical Engineering and Applications, 2(4), 256-260.

ONGC to Invest Rs 3500 Crore for Developing Three CBM Blocks. (2015). Retrieved from

O perspektivakh dobychi v Rossii ugol’nogo gaza. (2017). Retrieved from

Prasad, P.S.R., Sowjanya, Y., & Dhanunjana Chari, V. (2014). Enhancement in Methane Storage Capacity in Gas Hydrates Formed in Hollow Silica. The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 118(15), 7759-7764.

Puchcov, L.A., Slastunov, S.V., & Karkashadze, G.G. (2006). Methane Recovery and Utilization from Coal Seams in Russia. Global Methane Initiative, 5-25.

Raspadskaya Mine Explosion. (2010). Retrieved from

Real Potential: India’s Coal Bed Methane Development. (2015). Retrieved from

Rehder, G., Eckl, R., Elfgen, M., Falenty, A., Hamann, R., Kähler, N., & Windmeier, C. (2012). Methane Hydrate Pellet Transport Using the Self-Preservation Effect: A Techno-Economic Analysis. Energies, 5(12), 2499-2523.

Ruban, A.D. (2006). Methane in the Mines of Russia: Forecasting, Extraction and Usage. Moscow: IPKON RAN.

Said, S., Govindaraj, V., Herri, J.-M., Ouabbas, Y., Khodja, M., Belloum, M., & Nagarajan, R. (2016). A Study on the Influence of Nanofluids on Gas Hydrate Formation Kinetics and Their Potential: Application to the CO2 Capture Process. Journal of Natural Gas Science and Engineering, (32), 95-108.

Servio, P., & Englezos, P. (2002). Measurement of Dissolved Methane in Water in Equilibrium with Its Hydrate. Journal of Chemical & Engineering Data, 47(1), 87-90.

Shindell, D.T., Faluvegi, G., Koch, D.M., Schmidt, G.A., Unger, N., & Bauer, S.E. (2009). Improved Attribution of Climate Forcing to Emissions. Science, 326(5953), 716-718.

Shirato, K., & Satoh, M. (2011). “Dry Ionic Liquid” as a NewComer to “Dry Matter”. Soft Matter, 7(16), 7191.

Song, K., Feneyrou, G., Fleyfel, F., Martin, R., Lievois, J., & Kobayashi, R. (1997). Solubility Measurements of Methane and Ethane in Water at and Near Hydrate Conditions. Fluid Phase Equilibria, 128(1-2), 249-259.

Statistical Review of World Energy. (2008). Research Report. London: BP.

Stearns, M., Tindall, J.A., Cronin, G., Friedel, M.J., & Berg-quist, E. (2005). Effect of Coal‐Bed Methane Discharge Waters on Vegetation and Soil Ecosystems in Powder River Basin. Water, Air, & Soil Pollution, 168 (1-4), 33-57.

Taheri, Z., Shabani, M.R., Nazari, K., & Mehdizaheh, A. (2014). Natural Gas Transportation and Storage by Hydrate Technology: Iran Case Study. Journal of Natural Gas Science and Engineering, (21), 846-849.

Thakur, P. (2017). Global Reserves of Coal Bed Methane and Prominent Coal Basins. Advanced Reservoir and Production Engineering for Coal Bed Methane, 1-15.

The Unconventional Hydrocarbon Resources of Britain’s Onshore Basins – Coalbed Methane. (2013). Information Report. London: Department of Energy and Climate Change.

Tien, J.C. (1996). U.S. Mine Ventilation Regulations. Rotterdam: Balkema.

Ukraine Coalbed Methane Project (GEF). (1998). Technical Review. Global Environment Facility.

Ukraine’s Mine Death Toll Rises. (2007). Retrieved from

Wang, W., Bray, C.L., Adams, D.J., & Cooper, A.I. (2008). Methane Storage in Dry Water Gas Hydrates. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 130(35), 11608-11609.

Wu, J., Sun, M., & Feng, S. (2011). Good Lessons from The State-Level Demonstration Project of Coalbed Methane Development: An Overview of Such High-Tech and Commercial Project in The Southern Qinshui Basin. Natural Gas Industry, 31(5), 9-15.

Welander, P., & Vincent, T.L. (1999). Designing and Optimizing Gas/Liquid Reactions for: Environmental Processes/Chemical Reactions/Heat Transfer. New York: Chem Show.

Zhong, Y., & Rogers, R.E. (2000). Surfactant Effects on Gas Hydrate Formation. Chemical Engineering Science, 55(19), 4175-4187.

Лицензия Creative Commons