Mining of Mineral Deposits

ISSN 2415-3443 (Online)

ISSN 2415-3435 (Print)

Flag Counter

Leaching process intensification of gold-bearing raw materials

Abdrakhman Begalinov1, Mels Shautenov1, Talgat Almenov1, Bakytbek Bektur1

1Satbayev University, Almaty, Kazakhstan

Min. miner. depos. 2022, 16(2):42-48

Full text (PDF)


      Purpose. Research on the process intensification of gold-bearing product hydrometallurgical processing based on mechanochemical milling of the initial sulphide material.

      Methods. Mechanochemical activating (oxidation) of sulphide gold-bearing concentrate under conditions of superfine milling, sulphite-thiosulphate leaching of the milled product after liquid phase separation. The float concentrate sample with a particle size of -0.074 mm, the Au content is 15.5 g/t is tested. When loading into the mill of an initial concentrate sample weighing 300 g, 600 ml of a calcium hydroxide solution with a concentration of 143 g/l are added. The weight of balls loaded into the mill in relation to the concentrate weight is 10:1. The remainder of the solid product after milling is subjected to lea-ching with a sulphite-thiosulphate reagent.

      Findings. A sharp increase in the milled product of 10 µm fractions (from 14.05 to 34.63%) has been determined, and the mass fraction of gold in the final milling product decreases from 15.5 to 13.0 g/t. This corresponds to the recovery of gold into solution at this stage at the level of 16%. It has been found that with an additional supply of 1 g/l of copper sulphate for copper in the process of milling, it is possible to reduce the gold content in the milled product to 8.3 g/t. Thus, the recovery of gold into solution at the stage of milling increases from 16 to 48%. During the milling process, partial leaching of gold by reagents formed from its own sulphur has been revealed. It has been found that the transition of gold into solution is caused by the formation of a water-soluble hydrosulphide complex of gold during milling (AuS). As a result of leaching with the reagent, an additional 27% of gold has been recovered.

      Originality. Phase transformations of the sulphide gold-bearing beneficiary product as a result of mechanochemical activation have been determined. For the first time this process has been implemented to intensify the leaching process of gold-bearing mineral raw materials.

      Practical implications. The research results can be used in technological processes for the processing of refractory gold-bearing ores and technogenic raw materials.

      Keywords: float concentrate, gold, sulphur, milling, mechanochemical activation, reagent, recovery, solution, oxidation, leaching


  1. Anderson, C.G., & Twidwell, L.G. (2008). Hydrometallurgical processing of gold-bearing copper enargite concentrates. Canadian Metallurgical Quarterly, 47(3), 337-346.
  2. Bhappu, R.B. (1990). Hydrometallurgical processing of precious metal ores. Mineral Processing and Extractive Metallurgy Review, 6(1-4), 67-80.
  3. Fedotov, P.K., Senchenko, A.E., Fedotov, K.V., & Burdonov, A.E. (2021). Hydrometallurgical processing of gold-containing ore and its washed products. Metalurgija, 60(1-2), 85-88.
  4. Karimova, L.M., Zakharyan, D.V., & Agapitov, Y.E. (2021). Research on Hydrometallurgical Processing of Gold-Concentrate of Jamgyr Deposit. Journal of Siberian Federal University. Engineering & Technologies, 14(2), 166-174.
  5. Begalinov, A.B., Shautenov, M.R., Medeuov, Ch.K., & Almenov, T.M. (2018). Bestsianidnaya tekhnologiya izvlecheniya zolota iz trudnoobogatimogo prirodnogo i tekhnogennogo mineral’nogo syr’ya. Gornyy Zhurnal Kazakhstana, (1), 23-27.
  6. Begalinov, A.B., Medeuov, Ch.K., Begalinov, A.A., & Peregudov, V.V. (2007). Tekhnologiya pererabotki zolotosoderzhashchikh kor vyvetrivaniya uchastka Symbat (stadiya obogashcheniya). Gornyy Zhurnal Kazakhstana, (3), 9-15.
  7. Baibatsha, A., Omarova, G., Dyussembayeva, K., & Kassenova, A. (2016). Kokkiya - A promising for Kazakhstan gold-metasomatic type of deposit. International Multidisciplinary Scientific GeoConference Surveying Geology and Mining Ecology Management, (1) 289-296.
  8. Begalinov, A.B., Serdaliev, E.T., Iskakov, E.E., & Amanzholov, D.B. (2013). Shock blasting of ore stockpiles by low-density explosive charges. Journal of Mining Science, 49(6), 926-931.
  9. Abakanov, T.D., Begalinov, A.B., & Abakanov, A.T. (2016). Seismic Stability of Tunnels at the Kapchagai Hydropower Plant. Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering, 53(1), 60-65.
  10. Begalinov, A., Khomiakov, V., Serdaliyev, Y., Iskakov, Y., & Zhanbo-latov, A. (2020). Formulation of methods reducing landslide phenomena and the collapse of career slopes during open-pit mining. E3S Web of Conferences, (168), 00006.
  11. Abbruzzese, C., Fornari, P., Massidda, R., Veglio, F., & Ubaldini, S. (1995). Thiosulphate leaching for gold hydrometallurgy. Hydrometallurgy, 39(1-3), 265-276.
  12. Lyashenko, V.I., Andreev, B.N., & Kucha, P.M. (2018). Technological development of in-situ block leaching of metals from hard ore. Mining Informational and Analytical Bulletin, (3), 46-60.
  13. Breuer, P.L., & Jeffrey, M.I. (2000). Thiosulfate leaching kinetics of gold in the presence of copper and ammonia. Minerals Engineering, 13(10-11), 1071-1081.
  14. Umarbekova, Z.T., Zholtayev, G.Z., Zholtayev, G.Z., Amralinova, B.B., & Mataibaeva, I.E. (2020). Silver Halides in the Hypergene Zone of the Arkharly Gold Deposit as Indicators of their Formation in Dry and Hot Climate (Dzungar Alatau, Kazakhstan). International Journal of Engineering Research and Technology, 13(1), 181-190.
  15. Zipperian, D. (1998). Izvlechenie zolota i serebra iz riolitovykh rud vyshchelachivaniem tiosul’fatom ammoniya. Hydrometallurgy, (3), 1-6.
  16. Marchbank, A., & Thomas, K. (1996). Gold recovery from refractory carbonaceous ores by pressure oxidation and thiosulfate leaching. Patent #5536297. United States.
  17. Begalinov, A.B., Medeuov, Ch.K., Begalinov, A.A., & Peregudov, V.V. (2007). Tekhnologiya pererabotki zolotosoderzhashchikh kor vyvetrivaniya uchastka “Symbat” (stadiya obogashcheniya). Gornyy Zhurnal Kazakhstana, (3), 9-15.
  18. Begalinov, A.B., Akhmetzhanov, T.K., Yakovlev, A.P., & Medeuov, Ch.K. (2001). Tiosul’fatnoe vyshchelachivanie zolota. Teoriya i praktika. Almaty, Kazakhstan, 251 s.
  19. Langhans, J.W., Lei, K.P.V., & Carnahan, T.G. (1992). Copper-catalyzed thiosulfate leaching of low-grade gold ores. Hydrometallurgy, 29(1-3), 191-203.
  20. Wan, R.-Y., & Levier, K.M. (1995). Hydrometallurgical process for the recovery of precious metal values from precious metal ores with thiosulfate lixiviant. Patent #9504164. United States.
  21. Cao, C., Hu, L., & Gong, Q. (1992). Leaching gold by low concentration thiosulfate solution. Transactions of Nonferrous Metals Society of China, 2(4), 1-4.
  22. Breuer, P.L., & Jeffrey, M.I. (2000). Thiosulfate leaching kinetics of gold in the presence of copper and ammonia. Minerals Engineering, 13(10-11), 1071-1081.
  23. Kerley, B.J. (1983). Recovery of precious metals from difficult ores. Patent #4369061. United States.
  24. Begalinov, A., Shautenov, M., Almenov, T., Bektur, B., & Zhanakova, R. (2019). Prospects for the effective use of reagents based on sulfur compounds in the technology of extracting gold from resistant types of gold ore. Journal of Advanced Research in Dynamical and Control Systems, 11(8), 1791-1796.
  25. Opoczky, L. (1977). Fine grinding and agglomeration of silicates. Powder Technology, 17(1), 1-7.
  26. Balaz, P. (2008). Mechanochemistry in nanoscience and minerals engineering. Berlin, Germany: Springer, 413 p.
  27. Litvinova, N., Kopylova, A., Stepanova, V., & Tatsumi, H. (2020). Use of mechanical activation in the processing of gold-bearing ores and anthropogenic materials. E3S Web of Conferences, (192), 02017.
  28. Tyurin, N.G. (1966). Rol’ okislitel’no-vosstanovitel’nogo potentsiala v protsessakh rastvoreniya i osazhdeniya zolota. Issledovaniya Prirodnogo i Tekhnicheskogo Mineraloobrazovaniya. Moskva, Rossiya: Nauka, 186 s.
  29. Usov, B.A., & Gurinovich, L.S. (2015). Mekhanokhimicheskaya obrabotka, kak sposob intensifikatsii fiziko-khimicheskikh i tekhnologicheskikh protsessov. Sistemnye Tekhnologii, (16), 48-50.
  30. Begalinov, A.B., Medeuov, Ch.K., & Abdullaev, O.T. (2008). Tiosul’fatnoe vyshchelachivanie zolota (proizvodstvennyy opyt). Gornyy Zhurnal, (3), 50-52.
  31. Лицензия Creative Commons