Ceramic properties of clay deposits from Anambra Basin, South Eastern Nigeria
Victor Alfred Ayodele1, Muyideen Alade Saliu2, Bidem Ogunyemi Olaoluwa2
1West African Ceramics Ltd, Ajaokuta, Nigeria
2Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria
Min. miner. depos. 2022, 16(1):19-23
Full text (PDF)
Purpose. To determine and evaluate some ceramic properties (plasticity index, linear shrinkage, porosity, and bulk density) of clay deposits from Anambra Basin of South Eastern Nigeria.
Methods. Fifteen clay samples were collected by trenching methods. Samples were tested for plasticity index, linear shrinkage, loss on ignition, porosity, and bulk density using test standards developed by the American Society of Test and Materials. Result data were evaluated using tabulation and statistical graphs.
Findings. Mean plasticity index of the samples range from 14.3 to 21.3. Mean linear shrinkage is from 2.5 to 5.5%. Mean loss on ignition is from 6.56 to 9.75%. Mean porosities is from 6.9 to 30.1%. Mean bulk density is between 2362 and 1692 kg/m3. The ceramic properties of the deposits varied across location, and no single deposit has the complete set of ceramic properties needed in ceramic industries.
Originality. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first research that looked into the distributions of ceramic properties of clay deposits in Anambra geologic Basin.
Practical implications. The findings will help investors to make informed decisions on clay deposits in their investment plans and can be used as supporting document when applying for mining titles.
Keywords: ceramic, clay, deposit, plasticity index, porosity, linear shrinkage, bulk density
- Murray, H.H. (2007). Development in clay science 2: Applied clay mineralogy. Oxford, United Kingdom: Elsevier, 188 p.
- Philippe, B., & Jean-Claude, N. (2007). Ceramic materials: Processes, properties and application. Hoboken, United States: Wiley, 592 p.
- Ring, T. (1996). Fundamentals of ceramics powder processing and synthesis. Cambridge, United States: Academic Press, 961 p. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-588930-8.X5000-1
- State disaggregates mining and quarrying data 2017. (2018). Abuja, Nigeria: National Bureau of Statistics, 63-65.
- ASTM D4318-17. (2017). Standard test methods for liquid limit, plastic limit, and plasticity index of soils. West Conshohocken, United States: ASTM International.
- ASTM C326-09. (2018). Standard test method for drying and firing shrinkages of ceramic whiteware clays. West Conshohocken, United States: ASTM International.
- ASTM C311/C311M. (2018). Standard test methods for sampling and testing fly ash or natural pozzolans for use in portland-cement concrete. West Conshohocken, United States: ASTM International.
- ASTM C20-00. (2010). Test standard for burnt refractory brick and shape by boiling water. Whiteware clays. West Conshohocken, United States: ASTM International.
- USP 38-NF-33. (2015). Determination of sample bulk density. Frederick, United States: United States Pharmacopeia and National Formulary.
- Alfred, V.A. (2021). Physiochemical variabilities and suitability of clay deposits of Anambra basin for ceramic production. Master Thesis. Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria.
- Emesiobi, F.C. (2000). Testing and quality of materials in civil and highway engineering. Port Harcourt, Nigeria: Rivers State University of Science and Technology.a href="">
- Shuaib-Babata, Y.L., & Tanimowo, S.O. (2016). Properties assessment of some commercial steels from selected major steel markets in Nigeria. Proceedings for the 15th Annual International Conference/Nigerian Materials Congress, (1), 593-598.
- Felix, S., & Sonja, S.S. (1963). Industrial ceramics. Berlin, Germany: Springer Science-Business Media, 299 p.
- Ochieng, O. (2016). Characterization and classification of clay minerals for potential application in Rugi Ward, Kenya. African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 10(11), 415-431. https://doi.org/10.5897/AJEST2016.2184
- Velde, B. (1995). Origin and mineralogy of clays. New York, United States: Springer, 335 p.
- Osemenam, R.A., Afeni, T.B., Alfred, V.A., & Onwualu-John, J.N. (2018). Evaluation of some ceramic properties of Gadabiu clay deposit (Kwali Area Council, Abuja, Nigeria). Mining of Mineral Deposits, 13(2), 9-15. https://doi.org/10.33271/mining13.01.009
- Costas, S. (2011). Advances in ceramics: Raw materials, processing, properties, degradation and healing. Zagreb, Croatia: InTech Publishing, 95 p.