Mining of Mineral Deposits

ISSN 2415-3443 (Online)

ISSN 2415-3435 (Print)

Flag Counter

Substantiation of refractory lining influence on the electric furnace efficiency for the production of ferronickel

Nurten Deva1, Izet Ibrahimi1

1University Isa Boletini in Mitrovice, Mitrovice, 40000, Kosovo

Min. miner. depos. 2021, 15(3):71-77

Full text (PDF)


      Purpose. The purpose of the research is to substantiate the possibility of replacing existing MgO bricks with the MgO-C bricks due to their resistance to the slag aggressiveness of the electric furnace and the Si content in the resulting metal, which can have a positive effect on reducing the consumption of refractory materials.

      Methods. This research will be presented as the results of theoretical and experimental data determining the dependence of the electric furnace on the type of refractory material, walls construction, operating parameters and the electric furnace lining, that are expected to have a major impact on the cost output of production process.

      Findings. Based on the presented results, it has been revealed that MgO-C bricks are more effective in terms of preventing the furnace damage depending on refractory materials. Therefore, to optimize the production process, it is recommended to improve the composition of melted metal and slag, as well as to strengthen the control of the process parameters.

      Originality. Laboratory analyses are conducted in specialized laboratories, and the presented data have been obtained through the use of devices and equipment required for experimental research.

      Practical implications. The refractory materials are one of the main indicators of technical performance and production costs at NewCo Ferronickel in Kosovo. Therefore, the higher performance of the refractory lining will have a positive effect on the furnace durability and the quality of the final product.

      Keywords:ferronickel, refractory materials, slag, optimization, graphite blocks


  1. Fritsch, R.S., & Muller, H. (2013). Refining of ferronickel, INTECO special melting technologies GmbH, Bruck/Mur, Austria. The Thirteenth International Ferroalloys Congress Efficient Technologies in Ferroalloy Industry. Almaty, Kazakhstan.
  2. Guanghui, L., Hao, J., Peng, Zh., Zang, Y., & Jiang, J. (2016). Ferronickel preparation from nickeliferous laterite by rotary kiln‐electric furnace process. Changsha, Hunan, China: Central South University.
  3. HARBISON-WALKER Handbook of refractory practice Harbison. (2005). Moon Township, United States: Walker Refractory Company.
  4. Narasimham, A.V.L. (2007). Refractory lining failures in FECR furnaces an over view. INFACON, 7 p.
  5. Specification for fire retardant material from graphite and carbon products for furnace linings. (2007). Made by SGL CARBON GROUP dhe New Co “Ferronickel”, Glogovc.
  6. Schemmel, T.H., Schade, L., Kouzoupis, P., & Beqiri, F. (2013). Magnesia-carbon refractory lining for ferronickel converters-optimization and lining improvement at NewCo Ferronikeli (Kosovo). The Thirteen International Ferroalloy Congress, Efficient Technologies in Ferroalloy Industry. Almaty, Kazakhstan.
  7. Ovčačik, F., & Ovčačikova, H. (2015). Technology of refractory materials and heat insulating materials. Ostrava, Czechia‎: Technical University of Ostrava.
  8. Trisvetov, A. (2012). The use of graphite in the refractory. Industry Magnezite Group.
  9. Geerdes, M., Chaigneau, R., & Kurunov, I. (2015). Modern blast furnace ironmaking: An introduction. Amsterdam, the Netherlands: IOS Press.
  10. Ibrahimi, I., Deva, N., & Mehmeti, S. (2020). Optimalization of the ferronickel production process through improving desulfurization effectiveness. Civil Engineering Journal, 6(5), 907-918.
  11. Schacht, C.A. (2004). Refractories handbook. New York, United States: Marcel Dekker Inc.
  12. Meettham, G.W., & Van de Voorde, M.H. (2000). Materials for high temperature, engineering applications. Berlin, Germany: Springer.
  13. Wilkening, S. (2020). Testing of the alkali sensitivity of carbon and graphic martials. Bonn, Germany: Vereinigte Aluminium-Werke.
  14. Vullkov-Husovič, T. (2007). Vatrostalni materiali svojstva i primena. Belgrade, Serbia.
  15. Nitta, M., Ishii, A., & Nakamura, H. (2008). Development of carbon blocks for blast furnace hearths. Nippon Steel Technical Report No. 98.
  16. Лицензия Creative Commons