Mining of Mineral Deposits

ISSN 2415-3443 (Online)

ISSN 2415-3435 (Print)

Flag Counter

A study on the physical and mechanical properties of a granite outcrop for a quarry at Onikoko community, Oyo State, South-Western Nigeria

Luqman Kareem Salati1, Jacob Titilope Adeyemo2

1Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna, 800211, Nigeria

2Geocardinal Engineering Services Limited, Abuja, 900211, Nigeria

Min. miner. depos. 2021, 15(1):27-34

Full text (PDF)


      Purpose. To investigate the physical and mechanical properties of a granite outcrop for a quarry at Onikoko community in Oyo State, South-Western Nigeria.

      Methods. Samples of granite rock were collected from the outcrop for the laboratory determination of their physical and mechanical properties required for determining its suitability for construction and engineering purposes, and the desired properties were determined.

      Findings. Results from the tests conducted on the granite samples indicated the various values of physical and mechanical properties of the outcrop in the study area. The results obtained are found to be within the acceptable international standards. Hence, the granite outcrop is found to be suitable for establishing a quarry in the study area based on the results obtained.

      Originality.The results in this study have affirmed the fact that granite rocks must possess adequate physical and mechanical characteristics to make them suitable for construction and engineering purposes. The physico-mechanical properties of the granite outcrop evaluated in this study having their values within the international standards attest to high strength cha-racterization of the granite rock. The life span of the proposed quarry is established to be forty years, which is also an indication of rich mineralization of the area.

      Practical implications. Results of this study can be a useful source of information to potential investors and policy makers for the establishment of a quarry in the study area. Hence, government’s attention can be drawn to the needs of the host community for the provision of basic infrastructures.

      Keywords: granite outcrop, physical and mechanical properties, quarrying operation


  1. Wahab, G.M.A., Gouda, M., & Ibrahim, G. (2019). Study of physical and mechanical properties for some of Eastern Desert dimension marble and granite utilized in building decoration. Ain Shams Engineering Journal, 10(4), 907-915.
  2. Adeyi, G.O., Mbagwu, C.C., Ndupu, C.N., & Okeke, O.C. (2019). Production and uses of crushed aggregates: An overview. International Journal of Advanced Academic Research/Sciences, Technology and Engineering, 5(8), 92-110.
  3. Irfan, T.Y. (1994). Aggregate properties and resources of granitic rocks for use in concrete in Hong Kong. Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology and Hydrogeology, 27(1), 25-38.
  4. Naeem, M., Khalid, P., Sanaullah, M., & Zia ud Din. (2014). Physio-mechanical and aggregate properties of limestones from Pakistan. Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica, 49(3), 369-380.
  5. Panova, E.G., Vlasov, D.Y., & Luodes, H. (2014). Evaluation of the durability of granite in architectural monuments. Report of Investigation. Espoo, Finland: Geological Survey of Finland, 97 p.
  6. Holland, T. (2001). Calculation of phase relations involving haplogranitic melts using an internally consistent thermodynamic dataset. Journal of Petrology, 42(4), 673-683.
  7. Pacheco Torgal, F., & Castro-Gomes, J.P. (2006). Influence of physical and geometrical properties of granite and limestone aggregates on the durability of a C20/25 strength class concrete. Construction and Building Materials, 20(10), 1079-1088.
  8. Petrounias, P., Giannakopoulou, P., Rogkala, A., Stamatis, P., Lampropoulou, P., Tsikouras, B., & Hatzipanagiotou, K. (2018). The effect of petrographic characteristics and physico-mechanical properties of aggregates on the quality of concrete. Minerals, 8(12), 577.
  9. Dean, S.W., Takarli, M., & Prince-Agbodjan, W. (2008). Temperature effects on physical properties and mechanical behavior of granite: experimental investigation of material damage. Journal of ASTM International, 5(3), 100464.
  10. Korman, T., Bedekovic, G., Kujundzic, T., & Kuhinek, D. (2014). Impact of physical and mechanical properties of rocks on energy consumption of jaw crusher. Physicochemical Problems of Mineral Processing, 51(2), 461-475.
  11. Adebayo, B., & Adetula, B. (2013). Evaluation of physical and mechanical properties of rock for drilling condition classification. World Journal of Engineering, 10(4), 359-366.
  12. Agyeman, S., Assiamah, S., & Twumasi, G. (2019). Correlations of physicomechanical properties of quarry aggregates – the case of two quarries in Ghana. Global Journal of Engineering Sciences, 2(1), 1-11.
  13. Adekoya, J.A., Kehinde-Phillips, O.O., & Odukoya, A.M. (2011). Geological distribution of mineral resources in South-Western Nigeria. Journal of Mining and Geology, 47(1), 1-13.
  14. Ogunyele, A., & Akingboye, A. (2018). Tin mineralisation in Nigeria: A review. Environmental and Earth Sciences Research Journal, 5(1), 15-23.
  15. Alayande, S.O., Mubiayi, M.P., Makhatha, M.E., & Derek, R. (2015). Experimental Characterization of physicochemical and geological properties of granite from Olowu, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria. Proceedings of the World Congress on Mechanical, Chemical, and Material Engineering. Paper No. 337.
  16. Cull, S. (2009). Rocks and minerals. New York, United States: Chelsea House Publishers, The Franklin Institute, 102 p.
  17. Brown, E.T. (1981). Rock characterization, testing and monitoring (p. 75-105). ISRM Suggested methods. Commission on Testing Methods. International Society for Rock Mechanics. Oxford, United Kingdom: Pergamon Press.
  18. ASTM. (2001). Standard test method for determination of rock hardness by rebound hammer method. Designation D 5873. West Conshohocken, United States: American Society for Testing and Materials International.
  19. Adebayo, B., Opafunso, Z.O., & Akande, J.M. (2010). Drillability and strength characteristics of selected rocks in Nigeria. AU Journal of Technology, 14(1), 56-60.
  20. Jacobsson, L. (2007). Forsmark site investigation borehole KFM01C uniaxial compression test of intact rock. Boras, Sweden: Swedish National Testing and Research Institute, 52 p.
  21. Tiryaki, B. (2006). Evaluation of the indirect measures of rock brittleness and fracture toughness in rock cutting. The Journal of the South African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, (106), 407-424.
  22. Aydin, A. (2009). ISRM Suggested method for determination of the Schmidt hammer rebound hardness: Revised version. International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences, 46(3), 627-634.
  23. Лицензия Creative Commons