Mining of Mineral Deposits

ISSN 2415-3443 (Online)

ISSN 2415-3435 (Print)

Flag Counter

Choice and substantiation of stable crown shapes in deep-level iron ore mining

M. Stupnik1, O. Kalinichenko1, V. Kalinichenko1, S. Pysmennyi1, O. Morhun2

1Kryvyi Rih National University, Kryvyi Rih, Ukraine

2PJSC “Sukha Balka”, Kryvyi Rih, Ukraine

Min. miner. depos. 2018, 12(4):56-62

Full text (PDF)


      Purpose. The aim of the paper is to select and substantiate stable shapes of crown pillars through determining regularities of rock pressure impacts on their stability depending on the crown shapes, mining depths and iron ore hardness.

      Methods. Stress and strain calculations are performed by the ANSYS 16.0 finite element analysis. Triangulation of the 3D model with a 2 m side is conducted to build stress and strain diagrams. In accordance with the conditions of the experiment, the models were created for horizontal, tent, arched and inclined stope crowns with the dip varying within a wide range. The assumed values of rock pressure on the ore massif conform to mining conditions of the Kryvyi Rih basin deposits at the depths of 1200 to 1700 m.

      Findings. The obtained values of maximum stresses in stope crowns were calculated in respect to mining depth, rock pressure, crown dip, iron ore hardness and relative curvature radius of the arched crowns. It was determined that vertical and inclined compensating rooms should be used in mining rich iron ores at great depths by sublevel caving systems. In case of the room-and-pillar systems used in mining rich iron ores at great depths, a key requirement is to apply tent and arched crowns which provide maximum stability under high rock pressure.

      Originality. The research proves that the integrated index of maximum stresses in crown pillars varies from –10 to +32 MPa at depths of over 1200 m and is in polynomial and logarithmic dependence on physical and mechanical properties of the ore mass. It also depends on the crown geometry and, in case of the arched crown, acquires minimal values allowing for stable crown pillar exposures at depths reaching 2000 m.

      Practical implications. The research results allowed to compile the methodological manual “Choice and substantiation of stable crown shapes in deep-level iron ore mining” for the underground mines of the PJSC “Sukha Balka” and “Rodina” mine of the PJSC “Kryvbaszalizrudkom”.

      Keywords: ore, underground mining, crown pillar, exposures, stresses, stability


ASTM D7012-07e1. (2009). Standard test method for compressive strength and elastic moduli of intact rock core specimens under varying states of stress and temperatures. West Conshohocken, US: American Society for Testing and Materials.

Bondarenko, V.I., Kovalevskaya, I.A., Simanovich, G.A., & Snigur, V.G. (2013). Analitiko-eksperimentalnye issledovaniya ustoichivosti vyemochnykh vyrabotok i raschet parametrov krepezhnoi sistemy. Dnipro: LizunovPres.

Cała, M., Stopkowicz, A., Kowalski, M., Blajer, M., Cyran, K., & D’obyrn, K. (2016). Stability analysis of underground mining openings with complex geometry. Studia Geotechnica et Mechanica, 38(1), 25-32.

Das, A.J., Mandal, P.K., Bhattacharjee, R., Tiwari, S., Kushwaha, A., & Roy, L.B. (2017). Evaluation of stability of underground workings for exploitation of an inclined coal seam by the ubiquitous joint model. International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences, (93), 101-114.

Esterhuizen, G.S., Dolinar, D.R., Ellenberger, J.L., Prosser, L.J., & Iannacchione, A.T. (2007). Roof stability issues in underground limestone mines in the United States. In Proceedings of the 26th international conference on ground control in mining. (pp. 320-327). Morgantown, United States: West Virginia University.

Iannacchione, A.T., Batchler, T., & Marshall, T. (2004). Mapping hazards with microseismic technology to anticipate roof falls – a case study. In Proceedings of the 23th International Conference on Ground Control in Mining (pp. 327-333). Morgantown, United States: Pittsburgh Research Laboratory.

Kalinichenko, O.V. (2015). Udoskonalennia kontseptsii upravlinnia napruzheno-deformovanym stanom hirskoho masyvu pry pidzemnykh hirnychykh robotakh. Collection of research papers of SP “Research Mining Institute”, 104-111.

Kriev, Yu.K., & Kriev, I.Yu. (2005). Nesushchaya sposobnost’ nadsvodovoi chasti vyrabotok, stroyashchikhsia v skalnykh porodakh. Gornyy Zhurnal, (4), 48-50.

Malakhov, G.M. (1990). Upravlenie gornym davleniem pri razrabotke rudnykh mestorozhdenii Krivorozhskogo basseina. Kyiv: Naukova dumka.

Radouane, N., Boukelloul, M., & Fredj, M. (2015). Stability analysis of underground mining and their application on the mine Chaabte El Hamra, Algeria. Procedia Earth and Planetary Science, (15), 237-243.

Stupnik, N., & Kalinichenko, V. (2012). Parameters of shear zone and methods of their conditions control at underground mining of steep-dipping iron ore deposits in Kryvyi Rig basin. Geomechanical Processes During Underground Mining, 15-17.

Stupnik, N.I., Kalinichenko, V.A., Pysmennyi, S.V., & Kalinichenko, Ye.V. (2016). Obosnovanie parametrov ochistnoi kamery parabolicheskoi formy pri otrabotke zheleznykh rud v neustoichivykh porodakh. Hirnychyi Visnyk, (10), 7-12.

Talobre, J.A. (1967). La mécanique des roches. Paris, France: Dunod.

Tsarikovskii, V.V., Sakovich, V.V., Kishkin, P.I., Artemenko, A.F., & Migul, A.F. (1994). Opredelenie geometricheskikh parametrov kamernykh sistem razrabotki v Krivbasse so svodoobraznoy i shatrovoy formami obnazhenia potolochin. Kryvyi Rih: NIGRI.

Vybor i obosnovanie ustoichivykh form potolochin pri dobyche zheleznykh rud na bolshikh glubinakh. (2017). Kryvyi Rih: ITS KNU.

Лицензия Creative Commons